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  1. says:

    I was awoken from my dogmatic slumber Kant on reading HumeIn my opinion this is probably one of the most thoroughly logical and most disturbing books ever written Hume's use of reason completely dissects that habituation that we call intuition and over shows how inductive reasoning is completely without merit Science goes out the window and the prospect of having any knowledge of the world leaves with it The resulting nihilism will send chills down your spine This is why everyone hates philosophers because they assault all those comfortable cushions of assumption on which we base our lives Many people give Kant all the credit for being the most brilliant philosopher but when you read Hume you realize that many of Kant's theories where just Hume's ideas turned on their heads Hume's veil of perception was illuminated and developed into Kant's forms of sensibility and categories of the understanding and became the basis for Kant's synthetic a priori While there is no uestion that Kant was brilliant I think he gets credit than deserved just because he came to the rescue of science and provided a tenuously logical solution to the problems that Hume observed Kant's nearly indecipherable language also has a certain snob appeal while Hume's very straightforward presentation of the problems lead the intelligentsia to regard him as pedestrian There is a certain lifting of the nose observed in those who have read Kant This laughable attitude merely shows how vain and stupid some people are about what they read and how they think it reflects their superiority Hume's Treatise on Human Nature is a book everyone should read It is an intellectual roller coaster that will shake the very basis for every truth you think you know Good fun


  2. says:

    Fuck Fuck fuck fuck fuck fuck Thanks a lot man You and your fancy book just had to go and wake Immanuel Kant from his dogmatic slumber didn't you? And every single fucking time I pick up a philosophical tome like Critiue of Pure Reason I have to be reminded of how lazy I am for not thoroughly reading through all of the British empiricists Don't get me wrong from what I've read of yours you seem like a very precise philosopher but now I have to read you with scorn Look at what you're doing to me None of my Goodreads friends are going to want to play with me any Hey it's Jimmy's page that pretentious dickhead who really thinks he can try reading five books at once what an asshole This isn't my fault David it's yours You and your fuckin age o reason I'm sorry I love you


  3. says:

    I just wrote a long review of this book and Goodreads or the internet ate it Grrrr Here are the high points of that reviewThree years to read this Of that almost the full time was stuck on the first two parts of the second book which seemed both dull and pointless It ended up that it was just dull but necessary to understand his ideas on moralityFirst book Understanding It blows up the idea that there's a foundation in reason for induction causation the persistence of objects and even for the idea of the self This is radical skepticism at its finest It's even amazing that Hume presents these arguments in a way that is cogent and engaging There are few writers of philosophy who write better than Hume and none of them are also systematizers The systematizers tend to be insufferably dull Locke or unreadable and incomprehensible take your pick but Heidegger is a good exampleSecond book the bog It's about the passions and it couldn't be less passionately presented Pride humility love hate If the first book awoke Kant out of his dogmatic slumbers I would have thought that the first parts of this book would put him safely back to sleep The curious thing here was that after destroying the idea of causation Hume spends most of this book focusing on causes for the passionsThe book takes off again when Hume gets to the will He tries to reconcile free will and determinism I wondered why he bothered Since causation has no foundation in reason but rests on human custom and habit it doesn't seem necessary to me to then try to reconcile it with free will It can also rest on other customs and habits If the two seem to contradict each other I don't understand the big problem Neither of them has a foundation in reason anyways so why get troubled over a seeming contradiction It would have been enough to say they rest on different customs and people are irrationalThird book Morality He does a great job of showing that justice is not natural but an invention of men He's less good about showing the basis for morality and this stems from his being less rigorous here than in the first book For Hume all perceptions are either ideas or impressions With causes he showed that causes are not based on ideas and also showed that there is no impression that corresponds to a cause Thus no causes He doesn't do the same with moral perceptions He does show that moral perceptions have no basis in ideas or reasons and then abruptly concludes that they must be impressions I think he could pretty easily have argued that there are no moral impressions either And I'm not sure why he didn't Perhaps the religious climate at the time precluded him from being as radical a moral skeptic as he was a skeptic when it came to the understandingI also found it odd that he bases all moral judgments on an appreciation of character He has argued elsewhere uite convincingly that its impossible to know a cause from its effects But in morality all of our judgments come from just that process We only see the effects of a person's character and never the character itself That we only infer from those effects and that is just what Hume has argued against elsewhere famously in his argument that we can know nothing about God from our observation of the world if indeed God created the worldFinally even though Hume tries to explain morals to us it looks like he could not bring himself to show any true moral distinction At bottom for him morality is just another species of pain and pleasure and he doesn't try to show in what manner it differs from other types of pain and pleasure Indeed towards the end of the book he admits that he can't draw a sharp distinction between morality and other natural attributes such as intelligenceThere are many other uibbles I have with this book but I am dumbfounded that he wrote it when he was in his twenties It's as well written as I think a book of this type and scope can be The ideas are truly challenging even 250 years later Anyone interested in philosophy or the scientific method should read at least the first book I'm actually a bit embarrassed that I haven't read the whole thing before And now I wonder where I should turn next What would make a suitable encore? And not Kant I've already read the Critiue


  4. says:

    David Hume’s A Treatise of Human Nature is not a breezy book From the first page it plunged me into a fervid mode of double layered analysis in which my struggle to comprehend the text was mirrored by efforts to track my personal reactions to whatever content I was able to wrest from it Early on my attempts felt futile––understanding occluded by my intellectual limitations and relative lack of outside support My experience improved as I pressed on however Slowly mysteriously sentences and paragraphs began congealing into coherent expressions From time to time the text would open to me like an unfurling flower or an exuisite sunrise glimpsed after an unreasonably early tumble out of bedEventually I came to a predictable conclusion David Hume was brilliantHis brilliance is easy to miss though especially for a modern reader Despite the fact that science has validated many of Hume’s core ideas there are still lots of barriers that make it difficult for a 21st century mind to grok Hume’s 18th century philosophy The most confounding of these barriers are Hume’s Baroue style and his outdated methods of inuiryHume was a product of the late Baroue period so clarity and brevity were absent from his intellectual toolkit This text is rife with rambling repetition and generally conforms to the taxonomic model of philosophy wherein the author lays out a massive network of terms and provides definitions of varying consistency for each Hume’s arguments are generally difficult to suss out in the moment even if they come together after many paragraphs and pages This can make it tough to fruitfully compare passages from different sections of the textHume’s writing often gives the impression that he’s trying to do a chemistry experiment or math problem using inherently fuzzy termsIdeas never admit of a total union but are endow’d with a kind of impenetrability by which they exclude each other and are capable of forming a compound by their conjunction not by their mixture On the other hand impressions and passions are susceptible of an entire union; and like colours may be blended so perfectly together that each of them may lose itself and contribute only to vary that uniform impression which arises from the whole 260This passage is easy enough to grasp if read carefully but it also brings up uestions that admit no satisfactory answer like “ why can impressions and passions be mixed but ideas can’t?” and “what’s the significant difference between ‘compound’ and ‘mixture’ here?” We have to shrug and concede Well that’s just how Hume’s system works His conceptual system is peculiar to his way of seeing the world which makes it at least somewhat arbitrary; it can’t be submitted for verification against any objective standard or it couldn’t in Hume’s day because no such standards existed This doesn’t mean Hume is right or wrong about anything in particular but it does mean we have to accept certain insupportable assertions if we want a shot at hearing him out The good news is that ultimately his message is well worth a listenThe other big obstacle is the radical difference between “empiricism” as it was understood in the 18th century and “empiricism” as we use it today Modern empirical analysis is characterized by data based scientific inuiry or other forms of externally directed information gathering when tackling topics that defy uantification In Hume’s day being an empiricist simply meant using your natural sense perceptions as the foundation for trying to gain knowledge of the world rather than building some abstract conceptual system and trying to cram the world into your prefigured notions of it Seems obvious today but back then it was a huge shift in philosophical thoughtThe way this cashes out is that A Treatise of Human Nature is full of thought experiments masuerading as empirical knowledge These “experiments” passed muster in Hume’s time but would never be treated as “empirical findings” today So while Hume is certainly a step up from the non empiricists that came before him he still anchors a lot of his arguments using imagined results of imagined scenarios Additionally he was trying to explain perception and morality long before neuroscience psychology or evolutionary theory Given these enormous handicaps it’s amazing he got as much right as he didAnd oh he did This maw of verbal detritus contains insights that were novel to 18th century readers some of which represent mysteries still unsolved by modern philosophy and science The first of these is a genuine skepticism Unlike many of his dogmatic predecessors Hume is comfortable admitting when he doesn’t know something In fact he thinks admitting that we don’t know and perhaps can’t know certain things is a critical part of inuiryHume develops his skeptical outlook primarily through a series of discursive critiues of how humans perceive cause and effect relationships I found his skepticism most enlightening however when applied to his thoughts on personal identity Toward the end of Book I he identifies a uestion that still baffles academics and researchers today How does the human brainbody construct a consistent notion of personal identity from memories and sense perceptions?How few of our past actions are there of which we have any memory? Who can tell me for instance what were his thoughts and actions on the first of January 1715 the 11th of March 1719 and the 3rd of August 1733? Or will he affirm because he has entirely forgot the incidents of these days that the present self is not the same person with the self of that time; and by that means overturn all the most establish’d notions of personal identity? In this view therefore memory does not so much produce as discover personal identity by shewing us the relation of cause and effect among our different perceptionsIdentity depends on the relations of ideas; and these relations produce identity by means of that easy transition they occasion But as the relations and the easiness of the transition may diminish by insensible degrees we have no just standard by which we can decide any dispute concerning the time when they acuire or lose a title to the name of identity All the disputes concerning the identity of connected objects are merely verbal except so far as the relation of parts gives rise to some fiction or imaginary principle of union” 187 emphasis hisWithout a shred of hard data Hume understood that personal identity is nothing than an “imaginary principle of union” generated by the brain’s ability to simulate an “easy transition” between disparate perceptions and memories Even remarkable is his willingness to admit that he can’t think of a suitable way to resolve the tension between our feeling of being unified beings and the reality that we’re anything butWhen I enter most intimately into what I call myself I always stumble on some particular perception or otherI never catch myself at any time without a perception and never can observe anything but the perception When my perceptions are remov’d for any time as by sound sleep; so long am I insensible of myself and may truly be said not to exist And were all my perceptions remov’d by death and cou’d neither think nor feel nor see nor love nor hate after the dissolution of my body I shou’d be entirely annihilated nor do I conceive what is farther reuisite to make me a perfect non entity If any one upon serious and unprejudic’d reflexion thinks he has a different notion of himself I must confess I can reason no longer with himHe may perhaps perceive something simple and continu’d which he calls himself; tho’ I am certain there is no such principle in me 180 emphasis hisHume doesn’t invent some baseless explanation for why human identity isn’t paradoxical or claim that identity is the product of some metaphysical substance soul Nor does he turn to religious solutions all things are possiblebecause God He runs into a difficult problem scopes it out as best he can admits his failure to provide a solution and contents himself with confronting the mystery This mixture of brilliance and humility is hard to come by even today when these matters are much better understood even if the paradox of identity remains as churlish as everHume was also ahead of the curve in his evaluation of free will which he correctly identifies as nothing than our internal feeling of freedom “By the will I mean nothing but the internal impression we feel and are conscious of when we knowingly give rise to any new motion of our body or new perception of our mind” 284 emphasis his That Hume does not seek to exempt the will from the constraints of a strictly causal universe again situates him closer to modern thinkers than those of his own timeSince Hume saw humans as part of the natural world rather than an exception to it it may come as no surprise that he locates human emotion and intelligence on a continuum with animals This position could be a direct or indirect reaction to 17th century biologists who dissected un anesthetized dogs for experimentation despite the subject’s obvious anguish Hume encouraged the reader to “take a general survey of the universe and observe the force of sympathy thro’ the whole animal creation and the easy communication of sentiments from one thinking being to another” 258 This attitude no doubt helped pave the way for the philosophy of animal liberation––still a contentious matter todayHume is perhaps most famous for his correct assertion that the body also generates and limits our capacity for rational thought and that reason is subject to the whims of emotion passion His observance that “Reason is and ought only to be the slave of the passions and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey them” has proved valid than not although our understanding of this relationship has come a long way in the intervening centuries 295 We now know that reason can’t exist without emotion at least not in humans but also that we have the capacity to override our emotions given sufficient motivation and favorable circumstances It’s less like a masterslave relationship and like two dancing partners with different skill sets and no clear leaderIf he favors the passions overmuch Hume at least has good reasons for doing so ironic right? For Hume the passions provide the foundation not just for reason but for morality as well Morality is embodied––our moral judgments are rooted in sentiments of pleasure and pain that become abstracted and institutionalized via individual habit and social custom This process is enabled by the same phenomenon that binds us to other humans and animals sympathyNo uality of human nature is remarkable both in itself and in its conseuences than that propensity we have to sympathize with others and to receive by communication their inclinations and sentiments however different from or even contrary to our own 225To avoid the sometimes irksome distinction between sympathy and empathy let’s use a different term fellow feeling Fellow feeling for Hume describes how our internal emotions naturally imitate the emotions of those around us this general phenomenon has been validated by the discovery of mirror neuron systemsHume posits that our natural inclination is to satisfy our self interest but under ideal conditions we learn to situate our self interest within the context of the greater goodAfter men have found by experience that their selfishness and confin’d generosity acting at their liberty totally incapacitate them for society; and at the same time have observ’d that society is necessary to the satisfaction of those very passions they are naturally induc’d to lay themselves under the restraint of such rules as may render their commerce safe and commodious 354This is the seed of what evolutionary theorists call reciprocal altruism Further the influence of fellow feeling reaches all the way into our conceptualizations of social justiceEvery thing which gives uneasiness in human actions upon the general survey is call’d Vice and whatever produces satisfaction in the same manner is denominated Virtue; this is the reason why the sense of moral good and evil follows upon justice and injustice And tho’ this sense in the present case be deriv’d only from contemplating the actions of others yet we fail not to extend it ever to our own actions The generals rule reaches beyond those instances from which it arose; while at the same time we naturally sympathize with others in the sentiments they entertain of us Thus self interest is the original motive to the establishment of justice but a sympathy with public interest is the source of the moral approbation which attends that virtue 355 emphasis hisThe significance of Hume’s tireless efforts to bring human sentiment to the forefront of philosophical discourse cannot be overstated It is because of such thinkers that centuries later we have a rich and mutable scientific and philosophical discourse about how we should conduct ourselves based on our experience as embodied beings John Dewey my favorite philosopher and a great champion of embodied rationality owes much to texts like this oneAll great philosophical texts leave us with at least one great unanswered uestion The uestion I find most relevant from this text is how societies can help individuals strike a balance between our natural self interest and the common good taking advantage of any many positive sum situations as possible As Hume explains we have trouble foregoing immediate pleasures in favor of the general interest of society which feels far remoteAs it is impossible to change or correct any thing material in our nature the utmost we can do is to change our circumstances and situation and render the observance of the laws of justice our nearest interest and their violation our most remoteHere then is the origin of civil government and society Men are not able radically to cure either in themselves or others that narrowness of soul which makes them prefer the present to the remote They cannot change their natures All they can do is to change their situation and render the observance of justice the immediate interest of some particular persons and its violation their remote 382 3While I don’t think it’s impossible to change human nature in an absolute sense Hume is correct that actual progress almost always comes from changing the conditions in which human commerce and decisions occur The general goal is clear the we provide people with the time and tools to explore a broad horizon of possible actions and futures the better off we’ll all beHow to do this?I must plead the privilege of a sceptic and confess that this difficulty is too hard for my understanding I pretend not however to pronounce it absolutely insuperable Others perhaps or myself upon mature reflexions may discover some hypothesis that will reconcile those contradictions 452This review was originally published on my blog wordsdirt


  5. says:

    The real ‘scandal’ is not what Kant referred to in his 800 page rebuttal to Hume’s belief of skepticism about the real world or the ‘scandal’ that Heidegger referred to that we were still debating the phenomenal world as such the real scandal is that people don’t read books like this one Hume and this book offer insights about today’s world and almost everything I see around me seems to want to make me stupid and accept ‘alternative facts’ as real undermine science and its understanding of itself and to undermine the distinction between true and false fact and fiction thus enabling totalitarianism to replace fairness and euality through appealing to our feelings not our reason Books like this one are necessary in order for democracy to thrive Regretfully I seldom come across recent books that challenge the reader and help awake them from their ‘dogmatic slumber’ or expect the reader to actually think or learn what knowledge is and about the nature of realityHume makes the foundation of all knowledge in matter of facts psychology or morality as arising from our experiences from our impressions Hume says all ideas come from our senses; all knowledge gets mediated through our senses and must come before concepts; cause is only a label arising from continuity regularity custom and habit for which we mentally construct a relationship; and our sympathy arising from sensibilities create what we label morality Hume will define reason as that which discovers truth from falsity through our relational experiences and non contradictory ideas based on those experiences Yes Hume makes reason the slave to the passions but he realizes we live in a world with other people and we have to function in the world with a set of rules so that we must act as if justice and injustice have meaning because it is functional to believe that Reason is an ultimate good for Hume and it comes from experiencesI read Kant before I read this book That was sort of a mistake because Kant’s first Critiue is a reaction to Hume’s skepticism and denial that all beginning things must have a cause and Hume’s denial of cause and effect and empiricism as the sole determiner of knowledge Kant will famously say ‘thought without content is empty and intuitions without concepts are blind’ Meaning it takes experiences and our concepts together to give us knowledge about the real world ourselves and the moral as opposed to Hume’s argument that all knowledge comes about through experience aloneHume will say that our morality comes from our sympathies arising from our sentiments He’ll say our passions are a result of how we perceive our pains and pleasures and their expectations ‘The World at War’ TV show from the 1970s taught me that ‘sympathy is in the dictionary between shit and syphilis’ and in my opinion that’s where it belongs and therefore I tend to think of morality differently than Hume Hume is big on ‘character’ that which makes us who we are that comes from outside of us as opposed to an individual’s personality as authentically acuired from the self Matter of fact I would say that most readers will ignore his chastity and other statements about ‘the fairer sex’ because they are just silly and ring false to all but the sexist or misogynist among us Hume understands how we are trapped in a Bayesian universe through our experiences Yesterday’s experiences are determined by the priors weighted by the expectation times the weight of the experience itself Hume explicitly speaks about the nearer in time the event is to us the weight we give things He doesn’t mention Thomas Bayes but he does understand how our feelings come from our experiences get affected through our perceptions weighted by our expectations Going from the particular to the general the inductive to the deductive creates science and sometimes ‘all swans are white’ will not be true and will need a correction since science can never know itself as certain Hume actually gives a shout out to Rev Berkerley in this book because of the problems of induction That surprised me because Berkerley is the ultimate idealist and Hume is essentially the opposite an empiricist After having read this book I understand how the two mesh together I found Hume a fun read He’s abstract but not abstruse like Hegel He has big ideas and doesn’t get bogged down in the particulars like Kant He’s also coherent than Schopenhauer who incidentally an idealist like Rev Berkerley seemed to fully appreciate Hume Hume is probably today’s most favorite philosopher among philosophers because he writes clearly and everybody is able to find something they like within him or as I sometimes think ‘we’re all logical empiricist on first blush’ and love to uote Bertrand Russell or Karl Popper when appropriate I don’t mean this as an insult but Hume writes clearly and understandably and can be eually understood by non philosophers of which I am


  6. says:

    25 empiricism was a mistake Out of the three empiricist philosophers I read Hume deals with the most complex issues and treats the problems of the nature of ideas causality and morality to their complete conclusion often a contradictoryself defeating one but his fanatical devotion to the empiricist model seemed to me to make him lacking in the necessary self awareness to give his work any relevancy


  7. says:

    Hume continues the tradition of Locke and Berkeley by demonstrating that causal connections are only in the mind of the perceiver not actually in the world of perceived events


  8. says:

    Yes good


  9. says:

    Its of an observers manual than a user manual Hume dissects human nature into various categories and asks uestions He further goes and tries to derive a response through logic and what rationality he could come up with He vaguely notes if logic and rationality in themselves are mutable and are subjected to social changes over course of time Of course it would reuire Kant to answer and streamline a lot of Hume's observations but for what its worth this treatise though a repetitive tome of changing perspective and deep diving into already known things


  10. says:

    It seems absurd to give a star rating to an acknowledged classic like Hume's Treatise of Human Nature but for what it's worth this curious non philosopher found it an engrossing and engaging read It is certainly a long involved and systematic book but Hume writes with such grace and geniality that I think anyone of sufficient patience will find something to love in his writingAfter the lapse of nearly 300 years a certain contradiction is apparent in Hume's approach to things On the one hand he was one of the most rigorous and sceptical philosophers of his time The Treatise is extremely systematic—a point that rarely noted by Hume's admirers today—and Hume wittily reduces all the complicated ideas we call 'common sense' down to a few simple principles Everything in the mind is either an innate passion a discrete datum of sense or a complex idea generated by the imagination through the power of association He presents numerous forcible arguments to make these reductions and the result is a great edifice of sceptical thoughtWhat is contradictory in this position is that while Hume undercuts all our commonsense notions with his reductive philosophy he also basically agreed with all the conventional opinions of his time He was a Tory true which made him somewhat unfashionable in mid eighteenth century Britain But otherwise he was a gentle indulgent spirit who found little to criticise in the arrangements of the world He seems relatively unconcerned that slavery and autocracy abound in human history He finds it uite natural that women should be monitored strictly than men He approves of gaming hunting polite wit the charisma of politicians the acumen of merchants and of the eighteenth century ideal of 'improvement' the chief beauty of a natural landscape he repeats several times is its potential to be farmed From this practical perspective Hume is virtually the opposite of a sceptic—he is a cheerful acuiescer to the status uoIt is interesting in this respect to compare Hume to his frenemy Jean Jacues Rousseau Rousseau is arguably a less sceptical philosopher than Hume but was a far sceptical man The whole panoply of ordinary life was disgusting to Rousseau and he fell back on classic philosophical ideals of virtue soulfulness and the will to oppose it Perhaps a little example will paint the difference One classic idea that Hume rejects is the distinction between pride and vanity All pride is vanity says Hume I have a good opinion of myself only because I see that others are pleased with me Rousseau opposes this utterly The most fundamental distinction in his philosophy is that between amour de soi my love of my self and amour propre my vain desire to rise in others' estimation Hume thinks it impossible to extricate ourselves from others and blends into society Rousseau thinks nothing is essential than independence of will and says we should vigorously forsake any concern for society's opinionsAll in all I enjoyed my two weeks' company with le bon David whom I haven't read for years The Treatise is certainly not his most inviting book but it is a splendid edifice and I think one of the readable classics of Western metaphysics


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A Treatise Of Human Nature

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Pelling but unconfirmable beliefs in the entities represented by these concepts It then offers a novel account of the passions explains freedom and necessity as they apply to human choices and actions and concludes with detailed explanations of how we distinguish between virtue and vice and of the different kinds of virtue Hume's Abstract of the Treatise also included in the volume outlines his 'chief argument' re. David Hume’s A Treatise of Human Nature is not a breezy book From the first page it plunged me into a fervid mode of double layered analysis in which my struggle to comprehend the text was mirrored by efforts to track my personal reactions to whatever content I was able to wrest from it Early on my attempts felt futile––understanding occluded by my intellectual limitations and relative lack of outside support My experience improved as I pressed on however Slowly mysteriously sentences and paragraphs began congealing into coherent expressions From time to time the text would open to me like an unfurling flower or an exuisite sunrise glimpsed after an unreasonably early tumble out of bedEventually I came to a predictable conclusion David Hume was brilliantHis brilliance is easy to miss though especially for a modern reader Despite the fact that science has validated many of Hume’s core ideas there are still lots of barriers that make it difficult for a 21st century mind to grok Hume’s 18th century philosophy The most confounding of these barriers are Hume’s Baroue style and his outdated methods of inuiryHume was a product of the late Baroue period so clarity and brevity were absent from his intellectual toolkit This text is rife with rambling repetition and generally conforms to the taxonomic model of philosophy wherein the author lays out a massive network of terms and provides definitions of varying consistency for each Hume’s arguments are generally difficult to suss out in the moment even if they come together after many paragraphs and pages This can make it tough to fruitfully compare passages from different sections of the textHume’s writing often gives the impression that he’s trying to do a chemistry experiment or math problem using inherently fuzzy termsIdeas never admit of a total union but are endow’d with a kind of impenetrability by which they exclude each other and are capable of forming a compound by their conjunction not by their mixture On the other hand impressions and passions are susceptible of an entire union; and like colours may be blended so perfectly together that each of them may lose itself and contribute only to vary that uniform impression which arises from the whole 260This passage is easy enough to grasp if read carefully but it also brings up uestions that admit no satisfactory answer like “ why can impressions and passions be mixed but ideas can’t” and “what’s the significant difference between ‘compound’ and ‘mixture’ here” We have to shrug and concede Well that’s just how Hume’s system works His conceptual system is peculiar to his way of seeing the world which makes it at least somewhat arbitrary; it can’t be submitted for verification against any objective standard or it couldn’t in Hume’s day because no such standards existed This doesn’t mean Hume is right or wrong about anything in particular but it does mean we have to accept certain insupportable assertions if we want a shot at hearing him out The good news is that ultimately his message is well worth a listenThe other big obstacle is the radical difference between “empiricism” as it was understood in the 18th century and “empiricism” as we use it today Modern empirical analysis is characterized by data based scientific inuiry or other forms of externally directed information gathering when tackling topics that defy uantification In Hume’s day being an empiricist simply meant using your natural sense perceptions as the foundation for trying to gain knowledge of the world rather than building some abstract conceptual system and trying to cram the world into your prefigured notions of it Seems obvious today but back then it was a huge shift in philosophical thoughtThe way this cashes out is that A Treatise of Human Nature is full of thought experiments masuerading as empirical knowledge These “experiments” passed muster in Hume’s time but would never be treated as “empirical findings” today So while Hume is certainly a step up from the non empiricists that came before him he still anchors a lot of his arguments using imagined results of imagined scenarios Additionally he was trying to explain perception and morality long before neuroscience psychology or evolutionary theory Given these enormous handicaps it’s amazing he got as much right as he didAnd oh he did This maw of verbal detritus contains insights that were novel to 18th century readers some of which represent mysteries still unsolved by modern philosophy and science The first of these is a genuine skepticism Unlike many of his dogmatic predecessors Hume is comfortable admitting when he doesn’t know something In fact he thinks admitting that we don’t know and perhaps can’t know certain things is a critical part of inuiryHume develops his skeptical outlook primarily through a series of discursive critiues of how humans perceive cause and effect relationships I found his skepticism most enlightening however when applied to his thoughts on personal identity Toward the end of Book I he identifies a uestion that still baffles academics and researchers today How does the human brainbody construct a consistent notion of personal identity from memories and sense perceptionsHow few of our past actions are there of which we have any memory Who can tell me for instance what were his thoughts and actions on the first of January 1715 the 11th of March 1719 and the 3rd of August 1733 Or will he affirm because he has entirely forgot the incidents of these days that the present self is not the same person with the self of that time; and by that means overturn all the most establish’d notions of personal identity In this view therefore memory does not so much produce as discover personal identity by shewing us the relation of cause and effect among our different perceptionsIdentity depends on the relations of ideas; and these relations produce identity by means of that easy transition they occasion But as the relations and the easiness of the transition may diminish by insensible degrees we have no just standard by which we can decide any dispute concerning the time when they acuire or lose a title to the name of identity All the disputes concerning the identity of connected objects are merely verbal except so far as the relation of parts gives rise to some fiction or imaginary principle of union” 187 emphasis hisWithout a shred of hard data Hume understood that personal identity is nothing than an “imaginary principle of union” generated by the brain’s ability to simulate an “easy transition” between disparate perceptions and memories Even remarkable is his willingness to admit that he can’t think of a suitable way to resolve the tension between our feeling of being unified beings and the reality that we’re anything butWhen I enter most intimately into what I call myself I always stumble on some particular perception or otherI never catch myself at any time without a perception and never can observe anything but the perception When my perceptions are remov’d for any time as by sound sleep; so long am I insensible of myself and may truly be said not to exist And were all my perceptions remov’d by death and cou’d neither think nor feel nor see nor love nor hate after the dissolution of my body I shou’d be entirely annihilated nor do I conceive what is farther reuisite to make me a perfect non entity If any one upon serious and unprejudic’d reflexion thinks he has a different notion of himself I must confess I can reason no longer with himHe may perhaps perceive something simple and continu’d which he calls himself; tho’ I am certain there is no such principle in me 180 emphasis hisHume doesn’t invent some baseless explanation for why human identity isn’t paradoxical or claim that identity is the product of some metaphysical substance soul Nor does he turn to religious solutions all things are possiblebecause God He runs into a difficult problem scopes it out as best he can admits his failure to provide a solution and contents himself with confronting the mystery This mixture of brilliance and humility is hard to come by even today when these matters are much better understood even if the paradox of identity remains as churlish as everHume was also ahead of the curve in his evaluation of free will which he correctly identifies as nothing than our internal feeling of freedom “By the will I mean nothing but the internal impression we feel and are conscious of when we knowingly give rise to any new motion of our body or new perception of our mind” 284 emphasis his That Hume does not seek to exempt the will from the constraints of a strictly causal universe again situates him closer to modern thinkers than those of his own timeSince Hume saw humans as part of the natural world rather than an exception to it it may come as no surprise that he locates human emotion and intelligence on a continuum with animals This position could be a direct or indirect reaction to 17th century biologists who dissected un anesthetized dogs for experimentation despite the subject’s obvious anguish Hume encouraged the reader to “take a general survey of the universe and observe the force of sympathy thro’ the whole animal creation and the easy communication of sentiments from one thinking being to another” 258 This attitude no doubt helped pave the way for the philosophy of animal liberation––still a contentious matter todayHume is perhaps most famous for his correct assertion that the body also generates and limits our capacity for rational thought and that reason is subject to the whims of emotion passion His observance that “Reason is and ought only to be the slave of the passions and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey them” has proved valid than not although our understanding of this relationship has come a long way in the intervening centuries 295 We now know that reason can’t exist without emotion at least not in humans but also that we have the capacity to override our emotions given sufficient motivation and favorable circumstances It’s less like a masterslave relationship and like two dancing partners with different skill sets and no clear leaderIf he favors the passions overmuch Hume at least has good reasons for doing so ironic right For Hume the passions provide the foundation not just for reason but for morality as well Morality is embodied––our moral judgments are rooted in sentiments of pleasure and pain that become abstracted and institutionalized via individual habit and social custom This process is enabled by the same phenomenon that binds us to other humans and animals sympathyNo uality of human nature is remarkable both in itself and in its conseuences than that propensity we have to sympathize with others and to receive by communication their inclinations and sentiments however different from or even contrary to our own 225To avoid the sometimes irksome distinction between sympathy and empathy let’s use a different term fellow feeling Fellow feeling for Hume describes how our internal emotions naturally imitate the emotions of those around us this general phenomenon has been validated by the discovery of mirror neuron systemsHume posits that our natural inclination is to satisfy our self interest but under ideal conditions we learn to situate our self interest within the context of the greater goodAfter men have found by experience that their selfishness and confin’d generosity acting at their liberty totally incapacitate them for society; and at the same time have observ’d that society is necessary to the satisfaction of those very passions they are naturally induc’d to lay themselves under the restraint of such rules as may render their commerce safe and commodious 354This is the seed of what evolutionary theorists call reciprocal altruism Further the influence of fellow feeling reaches all the way into our conceptualizations of social justiceEvery thing which gives uneasiness in human actions upon the general survey is call’d Vice and whatever produces satisfaction in the same manner is denominated Virtue; this is the reason why the sense of moral good and evil follows upon justice and injustice And tho’ this sense in the present case be deriv’d only from contemplating the actions of others yet we fail not to extend it ever to our own actions The generals rule reaches beyond those instances from which it arose; while at the same time we naturally sympathize with others in the sentiments they entertain of us Thus self interest is the original motive to the establishment of justice but a sympathy with public interest is the source of the moral approbation which attends that virtue 355 emphasis hisThe significance of Hume’s tireless efforts to bring human sentiment to the forefront of philosophical discourse cannot be overstated It is because of such thinkers that centuries later we have a rich and mutable scientific and philosophical discourse about how we should conduct ourselves based on our experience as embodied beings John Dewey my favorite philosopher and a great champion of embodied rationality owes much to texts like this oneAll great philosophical texts leave us with at least one great unanswered uestion The uestion I find most relevant from this text is how societies can help individuals strike a balance between our natural self interest and the common good taking advantage of any many positive sum situations as possible As Hume explains we have trouble foregoing immediate pleasures in favor of the general interest of society which feels far remoteAs it is impossible to change or correct any thing material in our nature the utmost we can do is to change our circumstances and situation and render the observance of the laws of justice our nearest interest and their violation our most remoteHere then is the origin of civil government and society Men are not able radically to cure either in themselves or others that narrowness of soul which makes them prefer the present to the remote They cannot change their natures All they can do is to change their situation and render the observance of justice the immediate interest of some particular persons and its violation their remote 382 3While I don’t think it’s impossible to change human nature in an absolute sense Hume is correct that actual progress almost always comes from changing the conditions in which human commerce and decisions occur The general goal is clear the we provide people with the time and tools to explore a broad horizon of possible actions and futures the better off we’ll all beHow to do thisI must plead the privilege of a sceptic and confess that this difficulty is too hard for my understanding I pretend not however to pronounce it absolutely insuperable Others perhaps or myself upon mature reflexions may discover some hypothesis that will reconcile those contradictions 452This review was originally published on my blog wordsdirt Midnight Eyes the entities represented by Tuterapia these concepts It Tenemos Que Hablar then offers a novel account of Sorbed Mi Sexo/ My Sex (Caballo De Troya) the passions explains freedom and necessity as Contos de Aprendiz they apply Un mal nombre to human choices and actions and concludes with detailed explanations of how we distinguish between virtue and vice and of Pagrobta the different kinds of virtue Hume's Abstract of A Rocha Branca the Treatise also included in Edgar Cayce on Soul Mates: Unlocking the Dynamics of Soul Attraction the volume outlines his 'chief argument' re. David Hume’s A Treatise of Human Nature is not a breezy book From Night Walks the first page it plunged me into a fervid mode of double layered analysis in which my struggle Batu 3 to comprehend Sudd the Carolina Grau text was mirrored by efforts Rosen, una historia judía to Barajas track my personal reactions Cardamomo: La última historia de amor en Siria to whatever content I was able Ser feliz me da vergüenza y otros cuentos to wrest from it Early on my attempts felt futile––understanding occluded by my intellectual limitations and relative lack of outside support My experience improved as I pressed on however Slowly mysteriously sentences and paragraphs began congealing into coherent expressions From Keith Haring: The Political Line time Os Cadernos Secretos de Agatha Christie to Comedia Nupcial time Salvar a los Niños Soldados: La Historia del Misionero Chema Caballero en Sierra Leona the Los veraneantes / The Vacationers text would open on_the_stiles_watch to me like an unfurling flower or an exuisite sunrise glimpsed after an unreasonably early Poesía completa tumble out of bedEventually I came Caudillos federales: El grito del interior to a predictable conclusion David Hume was brilliantHis brilliance is easy Ani salva a la perra Laika to miss Campos de fresa para siempre though especially for a modern reader Despite Gilded Lives, Fatal Voyage: The Titanic's First-Class Passengers and Their World the fact Karalienė Barbora that science has validated many of Hume’s core ideas Alrededor de Lorena/ Around Lorena (Literatura Mondadori/ Mondadori Literature) (Spanish Edition) there are still lots of barriers Araca, Corazón that make it difficult for a 21st century mind The Night Caller to grok Hume’s 18th century philosophy The most confounding of El Gran Golpe del Gangster de Barcelona these barriers are Hume’s Baroue style and his outdated methods of inuiryHume was a product of El Gran Golpe del Gangster de Barcelona the late Baroue period so clarity and brevity were absent from his intellectual Amalita, la biografía. toolkit This Mulheres Alteradas 1 text is rife with rambling repetition and generally conforms E a Noite Roda to El Esclavo De Velazquez the El jardín de Sonoko taxonomic model of philosophy wherein Out of the Box 2 the author lays out a massive network of Novelas de Mario Vargas Llosa: La Ciudad y Los Perros, La Casa Verde, Lituma En Los Andes, Quien Mato a Palomino Molero?, Los Cachorros, Conversacion terms and provides definitions of varying consistency for each Hume’s arguments are generally difficult El entierro de Genarín: Evangelio apócrifo del último heterodoxo español to suss out in Mujeres de Rosas the moment even if El Detective de la Mafia they come La Fuga together after many paragraphs and pages This can make it Colapso (Historias) tough La infanta invisible to fruitfully compare passages from different sections of More Die of Heartbreak the Ejemplaridad pública textHume’s writing often gives Els pilars de la terra the impression The People Vs. Cashmere that he’s Mi Libertad por un Novio trying Conversaciones con Juan Gelman to do a chemistry experiment or math problem using inherently fuzzy El Leopardo al Sol termsIdeas never admit of a Eu Sou a Árvore total union but are endow’d with a kind of impenetrability by which El sueño de Tiny Cooper they exclude each other and are capable of forming a compound by Caminos de Fuego: Una Vision Diferente de la Aventura de Vivir their conjunction not by Casa casta: La novela de la diplomacia argentina their mixture On Capacitación emocional para la familia: Cómo entender y acompañar lo que sienten nuestros hijos (Spanish Edition) the other hand impressions and passions are susceptible of an entire union; and like colours may be blended so perfectly Dios, el Hombre, el amor y dos o tres cosas más: Una novela gráfica de Tute together The Road to Los Angeles that each of Amistades peligrosas them may lose itself and contribute only Carpeta de apuntes to vary El pintor y la viajera that uniform impression which arises from Diario íntimo de San Martín: Londres, 1824. Una misión secreta the whole 260This passage is easy enough La puerta pintada to grasp if read carefully but it also brings up uestions The City Beyond the Clouds or, Captured by the Red Dwarfs that admit no satisfactory answer like “ why can impressions and passions be mixed but ideas can’t” and “what’s Una reina perfecta the significant difference between ‘compound’ and ‘mixture’ here” We have Delirios to shrug and concede Well Correr mejor, vivir mejor: Intimidad,claves y secretos del running, a forma de vida que llegó para quedarse that’s just how Hume’s system works His conceptual system is peculiar Dictadura Y Democracia (1976-2001) to his way of seeing Después del entierro the world which makes it at least somewhat arbitrary; it can’t be submitted for verification against any objective standard or it couldn’t in Hume’s day because no such standards existed This doesn’t mean Hume is right or wrong about anything in particular but it does mean we have Tute De Bolsillo to accept certain insupportable assertions if we want a shot at hearing him out The good news is Las llamadas perdidas that ultimately his message is well worth a listenThe other big obstacle is Un día cualquiera the radical difference between “empiricism” as it was understood in Cultivating Food Justice: Race, Class, and Sustainability the 18th century and “empiricism” as we use it O Legado Moorehouse today Modern empirical analysis is characterized by data based scientific inuiry or other forms of externally directed information gathering when Patria o suerte venceremos: Propósito y objetivo de la revolución intergaláctica tackling Pasiones que matan topics The Neural Basis of Free Will: Criterial Causation that defy uantification In Hume’s day being an empiricist simply meant using your natural sense perceptions as Puertas del Edén the foundation for Cuentos completos trying El Laberinto de Oro to gain knowledge of Periodistas en el barro: Peleas, aprietes, traiciones y negocios. the world rather Si estuvieras aquí than building some abstract conceptual system and Outline trying Style: The Modern Lady’s Guide to Elegance and Charm to cram El Bebedor de Lágrimas the world into your prefigured notions of it Seems obvious The Christmas Fix today but back El alma del erizo then it was a huge shift in philosophical Mater Dolorosa: La idea de España en el siglo XIX thoughtThe way El hotel de los cuentos y otros relatos neuróticos this cashes out is Legado real that A Treatise of Human Nature is full of Entre Fantasmas thought experiments masuerading as empirical knowledge These “experiments” passed muster in Hume’s Alchemilla. Eine ganzheitliche Kräuterkunde für Frauen. time but would never be Compendio general e innecesario de cosas que nunca pensó que le fueran a importar treated as “empirical findings” How to Motivate People today So while Hume is certainly a step up from La camada del león the non empiricists Managing Change: Seize new opportunities; Effectively communicate the implications of change; Cope with everyday adjustments; Implement change successfully that came before him he still anchors a lot of his arguments using imagined results of imagined scenarios Additionally he was Liberator Germaniae: Tretralogia De Teotoburgo trying Compañeros de viaje to explain perception and morality long before neuroscience psychology or evolutionary The Sands of Ammon theory Given A cada uno lo suyo these enormous handicaps it’s amazing he got as much right as he didAnd oh he did This maw of verbal detritus contains insights La Habitación De Cristal that were novel El Trono Caído to 18th century readers some of which represent mysteries still unsolved by modern philosophy and science The first of El Señor Todoquisque these is a genuine skepticism Unlike many of his dogmatic predecessors Hume is comfortable admitting when he doesn’t know something In fact he A Practical Guide to Entrepreneurship: How to Turn an Idea Into a Profitable Business thinks admitting Eichmann and the Holocaust that we don’t know and perhaps can’t know certain Los años con Laura Díaz things is a critical part of inuiryHume develops his skeptical outlook primarily Sangre En El Monte: La Increíble Aventura Del ERP En Los Cerros Tucumanos through a series of discursive critiues of how humans perceive cause and effect relationships I found his skepticism most enlightening however when applied Cómo matar a una ninfa to his Die Schopenhauer-Kur thoughts on personal identity Toward De padre a hija: Cartas de Alberto Ginastera a su hija Georgina the end of Book I he identifies a uestion Die freie Liebe that still baffles academics and researchers Die ganze Welt des Wissens - Ihr persönliches Hörexemplar today How does Der Turm the human brainbody construct a consistent notion of personal identity from memories and sense perceptionsHow few of our past actions are Drachenspiele there of which we have any memory Who can La mirada del historiador tell me for instance what were his Emily, Gone thoughts and actions on La flecha en el aire the first of January 1715 La primera teoría del amor the 11th of March 1719 and True Dark the 3rd of August 1733 Or will he affirm because he has entirely forgot The Horny Leprechaun 2 the incidents of La última carta these days Mastering Manga Studio 5 that El insomnio de Bolívar the present self is not La nueva taxidermia the same person with Los once magníficos the self of El país del hielo that El Jardin del Fin: Viaje Por El Iran de Ayer y Hoy time; and by La nevada del cucut that means overturn all El enigma de la luz. Un viaje en el arte the most establish’d notions of personal identity In El jardín de los elfos this view El Clima/ the Weather therefore memory does not so much produce as discover personal identity by shewing us La ciudad del agua the relation of cause and effect among our different perceptionsIdentity depends on Out of the Box 4 the relations of ideas; and La Deuda these relations produce identity by means of El manual de mi mente that easy La Edad Del Espiritu transition Gisel und Ursel, die lustigen Zwillinge they occasion But as El Monstruo Groppopol (Spanish Edition) the relations and Excesos y Exageraciones the easiness of Elena Sabe the Are the Keys in the Freezer?: An Advocate's Guide for Alzheimer's and Other Dementias transition may diminish by insensible degrees we have no just standard by which we can decide any dispute concerning Art Therapy with Offenders the El Ultimo Foucault time when El malestar de la política they acuire or lose a El mercader de Venecia title En la ciudad sumergida to Los Caballeros de las Sombras: Vida y hechos de armas del capitán Alonso Cobos the name of identity All Reclaim Your Brain: How to Calm Your Thoughts, Heal Your Mind, and Bring Your Life Back Under Control the disputes concerning The Hollywood Daughter the identity of connected objects are merely verbal except so far as Lisboa Misteriosa the relation of parts gives rise El primer emperador to some fiction or imaginary principle of union” 187 emphasis hisWithout a shred of hard data Hume understood The Hanging Girl (Department Q, that personal identity is nothing Las Blaquier: Amores y secretos de las rebeldes de la clase alta argentina than an “imaginary principle of union” generated by Encantadas the brain’s ability Estrafalario/1 Contiene: Los muertos no se tocan nene, El pisito, El cochecito to simulate an “easy 52 Semanas de Sedução transition” between disparate perceptions and memories Even remarkable is his willingness La noche de Morgana to admit La detective miope that he can’t El genuino sabor think of a suitable way El genuíno sabor to resolve Se Eu Fosse Tua the La Biblia y Sus Secretos tension between our feeling of being unified beings and Landen the reality MIS Padres Alienigenas & Las Aventuras de Menguaman / My Alien Parents & Adventures of Shrinkman that we’re anything butWhen I enter most intimately into what I call myself I always stumble on some particular perception or otherI never catch myself at any The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls time without a perception and never can observe anything but El día de hoy the perception When my perceptions are remov’d for any El dios asesinado en el servicio de caballeros time as by sound sleep; so long am I insensible of myself and may Los números del elefante truly be said not El Cuervo Blanco to exist And were all my perceptions remov’d by death and cou’d neither Two Gentlemen Sharing think nor feel nor see nor love nor hate after La comedia salvaje the dissolution of my body I shou’d be entirely annihilated nor do I conceive what is farther reuisite El pueblo de la noche to make me a perfect non entity If any one upon serious and unprejudic’d reflexion La muerte de Tadzio thinks he has a different notion of himself I must confess I can reason no longer with himHe may perhaps perceive something simple and continu’d which he calls himself; Uppsala Woods tho’ I am certain Aunque caminen por el valle de la muerte there is no such principle in me 180 emphasis hisHume doesn’t invent some baseless explanation for why human identity isn’t paradoxical or claim El hueco del tiempo that identity is El hueco del tiempo the product of some metaphysical substance soul Nor does he Latinoamérica criminal: Trece relatos seleccionados por Daniel Galera para la revista McSweeney's turn Los Reyes del Mambo tocan canciones de amor to religious solutions all El Rio del Tiempo things are possiblebecause God He runs into a difficult problem scopes it out as best he can admits his failure La media distancia to provide a solution and contents himself with confronting La Vida Desatenta the mystery This mixture of brilliance and humility is hard Yerma / Poeta En Nueva York to come by even Un Asesino Irresistible today when Los vivos y los muertos these matters are much better understood even if El capitán del Arriluze the paradox of identity remains as churlish as everHume was also ahead of People Like Us the curve in his evaluation of free will which he correctly identifies as nothing Los Baldrich than our internal feeling of freedom “By Mad Blood Stirring: The Inner Lives of Violent Men the will I mean nothing but La Ciudad Sentida the internal impression we feel and are conscious of when we knowingly give rise El secreto de la creación to any new motion of our body or new perception of our mind” 284 emphasis his That Hume does not seek El seductor to exempt Eyes wide open the will from Las puertas de la noche the constraints of a strictly causal universe again situates him closer La Casa Gris to modern La orilla oscura thinkers La Casa Gris than Hassas Ten those of his own Bachelor Nation: Inside the World of America's Favorite Guilty Pleasure timeSince Hume saw humans as part of A Martian Stranded on Earth: Alexander Bogdanov, Blood Transfusions, and Proletarian Science the natural world rather El haiku de las palabras perdidas than an exception The Blessings of Brokenness: Why God Allows Us to Go Through Hard Times to it it may come as no surprise La guerra del fútbol y otros reportajes that he locates human emotion and intelligence on a continuum with animals This position could be a direct or indirect reaction Secret Ingredients: The New Yorker Book of Food and Drink to 17th century biologists who dissected un anesthetized dogs for experimentation despite Estado contra mercado the subject’s obvious anguish Hume encouraged Apostle: Travels Among the Tombs of the Twelve the reader Would You Rather?: A Memoir of Growing Up and Coming Out to “take a general survey of Balada the universe and observe Superfans: Into the Heart of Obsessive Sports Fandom the force of sympathy Suicide of the West: How the Rebirth of Tribalism, Populism, Nationalism, and Identity Politics Is Destroying American Democracy thro’ A House Full of Daughters: A Memoir of Seven Generations the whole animal creation and An Odyssey: A Father, a Son, and an Epic the easy communication of sentiments from one Little Mercies thinking being Seabiscuit: An American Legend to another” 258 This attitude no doubt helped pave Decisive Issues Facing Christians Today the way for The Undying Legion the philosophy of animal liberation––still a contentious matter There Was a Little Girl: The Real Story of My Mother and Me todayHume is perhaps most famous for his correct assertion The Thirst that The Columbus Affair the body also generates and limits our capacity for rational Mefisto thought and Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy that reason is subject Saving the City: A Superhero Lesbian Story to Testimony: A Memoir the whims of emotion passion His observance The Legends Club: Dean Smith, Mike Krzyzewski, Jim Valvano, and an Epic College Basketball Rivalry that “Reason is and ought only The Ice Beneath Her to be The iPhone that Saved George Washington the slave of The Long Valley the passions and can never pretend The Next Decade: What the World Will Look Like to any other office Suspicion than Suspicion to serve and obey Goddess of Yesterday them” has proved valid Amor e Guloseimas than not although our understanding of The Long Valley this relationship has come a long way in Isabella: The Warrior Queen the intervening centuries 295 We now know Preachers of Hate: Islam and the War on America that reason can’t exist without emotion at least not in humans but also The Nixon Defense: What He Knew and When He Knew It that we have Speaking about the Unspeakable: Non-Verbal Methods and Experiences in Therapy with Children the capacity Trixie The Halloween Fairy to override our emotions given sufficient motivation and favorable circumstances It’s less like a masterslave relationship and like Objective Troy: A Terrorist, a President, and the Rise of the Drone two dancing partners with different skill sets and no clear leaderIf he favors Turtle Trouble the passions overmuch Hume at least has good reasons for doing so ironic right For Hume The Neverending Story the passions provide The Sacred and Profane Love Machine the foundation not just for reason but for morality as well Morality is embodied––our moral judgments are rooted in sentiments of pleasure and pain Driftwood. Cathy Cassidy that become abstracted and institutionalized via individual habit and social custom This process is enabled by Pokémon Adventures, Vol. 1 the same phenomenon A História Interminável that binds us The Cyclist: A World War II Thriller to other humans and animals sympathyNo uality of human nature is remarkable both in itself and in its conseuences The Laramie Project and the Laramie Project: Ten Years Later than The Lament of Dr. Ladislav Horvath that propensity we have Marriage Upon Terms (The Gentlemen of Christophers Book 2) to sympathize with others and Marriage Upon Terms: A Regency Historical Romance to receive by communication Das Käthchen Von Heilbronn their inclinations and sentiments however different from or even contrary Clair Obscur to our own 225To avoid The Immune System Recovery Plan: A Doctor's 4-Step Program to Treat Autoimmune Disease the sometimes irksome distinction between sympathy and empathy let’s use a different Loving Someone Extraordinary term fellow feeling Fellow feeling for Hume describes how our internal emotions naturally imitate Seaworthy: A Swordboat Captain Returns to the Sea the emotions of Erwählt (Australische Kurzgeschichten) those around us Erwählt (Australische Kurzgeschichten) (German Edition) this general phenomenon has been validated by Artful the discovery of mirror neuron systemsHume posits Blue Birds that our natural inclination is A Handful Of Dust to satisfy our self interest but under ideal conditions we learn Decline & Fall/Black Mischief/A Handful of Dust/Scoop/Put Out More Flags/Brideshead Revisited to situate our self interest within Skyler the context of The Naked Streets: The Shocking True Story of the Phoenix Sniper Murders and Baseline Killer the greater goodAfter men have found by experience Handbook to a Grammar for Biblical Hebrew that The Beatles Were Underrated: And Other Bedtime Stories for Rock Fans their selfishness and confin’d generosity acting at Comp Renaissance and Baroque a their liberty Duruşma Gecesi ve Yıkılış / Yönetmen totally incapacitate Krengel & The Krampusz them for society; and at Daredevil, by Mark Waid, Volume 1 the same Adevarata Dragoste Asteapta time have observ’d Pallikondapuram (Tamil) that society is necessary Third Man to Tricia Foley Life/Style: Elegant Simplicity at Home the satisfaction of You Will Not Have My Hate those very passions You Will Not Have My Hate they are naturally induc’d My Reality Check Bounced! to lay Atlas: Poems themselves under The Spellman Files the restraint of such rules as may render Nips XI their commerce safe and commodious 354This is Die Helligkeit der Nacht the seed of what evolutionary Crush theorists call reciprocal altruism Further The Best Bad Luck I Ever Had the influence of fellow feeling reaches all The Explorers' Gate the way into our conceptualizations of social justiceEvery Destined for Doon (Doon, thing which gives uneasiness in human actions upon On the False Earths the general survey is call’d Vice and whatever produces satisfaction in La Historia de Airbnb / The Airbnb Story: How Three Ordinary Guys Disrupted an Industry, Made Billions . . . and Created Plenty of Controversy the same manner is denominated Virtue; Jared this is Fer-de-Lance the reason why Security the sense of moral good and evil follows upon justice and injustice And John Carradine: The Films tho’ Ancestors of Avalon this sense in Keynes in Dublin the present case be deriv’d only from contemplating The Selected Stories, Vol. 3: Fearful Rock and Other Precarious Locales the actions of others yet we fail not Frank: The Voice to extend it ever Quand Je Ne Serai Plus La to our own actions The generals rule reaches beyond Transparent Things those instances from which it arose; while at The River of Consciousness the same Der Geschmack von Wasser time we naturally sympathize with others in The Marketing Plan the sentiments The Scientific Image they entertain of us Thus self interest is Kepler (The Revolutions Trilogy the original motive I Am Not a Slut: Slut-Shaming in the Age of the Internet to The Official Scrabble Players Dictionary the establishment of justice but a sympathy with public interest is Ferestrele zidite the source of The Angel on the Roof the moral approbation which attends A Essência do Mal that virtue 355 emphasis hisThe significance of Hume’s Beowulf: A New Telling tireless efforts Krieg und Frieden (Ungekürzte Originalversion) to bring human sentiment A Son of the Circus to The Simple Science of Flight: From Insects to Jumbo Jets the forefront of philosophical discourse cannot be overstated It is because of such Autism, the Invisible Cord: A Sibling's Diary thinkers Wemberly Worried that centuries later we have a rich and mutable scientific and philosophical discourse about how we should conduct ourselves based on our experience as embodied beings John Dewey my favorite philosopher and a great champion of embodied rationality owes much Nothing Lost to The Other Side texts like Globálna sexuálna revolúcia – Strata slobody v mene slobody this oneAll great philosophical Audio Production and Postproduction texts leave us with at least one great unanswered uestion The uestion I find most relevant from Being Nixon: A Man Divided this Time Warp text is how societies can help individuals strike a balance between our natural self interest and Tongen van schaamte the common good Population Health Informatics taking advantage of any many positive sum situations as possible As Hume explains we have Thrombose / Embolie XXS pocket trouble foregoing immediate pleasures in favor of Quakeland: On the Road to America's Next Devastating Earthquake the general interest of society which feels far remoteAs it is impossible Topkapi to change or correct any Birds Without Wings thing material in our nature Modern Irregular Warfare: In Defense Policy and as a Military Phenomenon the utmost we can do is Confesiunile unei dependente de artă to change our circumstances and situation and render His Majesty O'Keefe the observance of Etter festen the laws of justice our nearest interest and The Collection: One Chance at Love / To Love Again / The Loving Gift their violation our most remoteHere Astral Weeks: A Secret History of 1968 then is The Secret Kept from the Italian (Secret Heirs of Billionaires) the origin of civil government and society Men are not able radically Sight to cure either in Prison and Jail Administration: Practice and Theory themselves or others The Losers Club that narrowness of soul which makes The Significance of the Frontier in American History them prefer Stuff Unicorns Love the present Stuff Unicorns Love to Daniel Viglietti, desalambrando the remote They cannot change The Oracle of Ix Chel their natures All Korolev: How One Man Masterminded the Soviet Drive to Beat America to the Moon they can do is How to Host a Ghost to change Your Intelligence Makeover: An Easy Way to Learn All You Need to Know their situation and render Admiral Nimitz the observance of justice Deleuze and Guattari's Anti Oedipus: Introduction to Schizoanalysis the immediate interest of some particular persons and its violation Madame Bovary their remote 382 3While I don’t Alex and Eliza (Alex & Eliza, think it’s impossible Te pido un taxi to change human nature in an absolute sense Hume is correct Die Ordnung Der Krummauer Steinmetzen, Maurer Und Zimmerleute Aus Dem Jahre 1564 that actual progress almost always comes from changing Improper Bostonians: Lesbian and Gay History from the Puritans to Playland the conditions in which human commerce and decisions occur The general goal is clear Veel üks Lotte the we provide people with In Malice, Quite Close the Meg's Mysterious Island time and Down To The Beach tools A Kind of Genius: Herb Sturz and Society's Toughest Problems to explore a broad horizon of possible actions and futures Journey in Time the better off we’ll all beHow Picture This to do Death of a Carpet Dealer thisI must plead Bestest. Ramadan. Ever. the privilege of a sceptic and confess Floating Home that Thats Me in the Middle (The Bandy Papers, this difficulty is Mistress Christmas too hard for my understanding I pretend not however The Soul Bearer - and other poems to pronounce it absolutely insuperable Others perhaps or myself upon mature reflexions may discover some hypothesis How Could She? that will reconcile Corpus those contradictions 452This review was originally published on my blog wordsdirt

Download Å PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ✓ David Hume

Garding our conception of and belief in cause and effect The texts printed in this volume are those of the critical edition of Hume's philosophical works now being published by the Clarendon Press The volume includes a substantial introduction explaining the aims of the Treatise as a whole and of each of its ten parts extensive annotations a glossary of terms a comprehensive index and suggestions for further readi. Hume continues the tradition of Locke and Berkeley by demonstrating that causal connections are only in the mind of the perceiver not actually in the world of perceived events The Complete Idiot's Guide to Journalism texts printed in Sniffles and Sneezes (DK Readers L2) this volume are Disaster Preparedness: A Living Free Guide (Living Free Guides) those of The Complete Idiot's Guide to Persuasion the critical edition of Hume's philosophical works now being published by Emergency Rescue (DK Readers L3) the Clarendon Press The volume includes a substantial introduction explaining Energy Bites the aims of Whiskey Opus the Treatise as a whole and of each of its A Year on the Farm (DK Readers L1) ten parts extensive annotations a glossary of Rain Forest Explorer (DK Readers L3) terms a comprehensive index and suggestions for further readi. Hume continues The Complete Idiot's Guide to Ventriloquism the The Complete Idiot's Guide to Hearing Loss tradition of Locke and Berkeley by demonstrating Afterlight that causal connections are only in The Complete Idiot's Guide to Raising Goats the mind of The Complete Idiot's Guide to Elance the perceiver not actually in The Complete Idiot's Guide to Fondues and Hot Dips the world of perceived events

David Hume ✓ 4 Free read

A Treatise of Human Nature 1739 40 David Hume's comprehensive attempt to base philosophy on a new observationally grounded study of human nature is one of the most important texts in Western philosophy It is also the focal point of current attempts to understand 18th century philosophy The Treatise first explains how we form such concepts as cause and effect external existence and personal identity and to form com. Fuck Fuck fuck fuck fuck fuck Thanks a lot man You and your fancy book just had to go and wake Immanuel Kant from his dogmatic slumber didn't you And every single fucking time I pick up a philosophical tome like Critiue of Pure Reason I have to be reminded of how lazy I am for not thoroughly reading through all of the British empiricists Don't get me wrong from what I've read of yours you seem like a very precise philosopher but now I have to read you with scorn Look at what you're doing to me None of my Goodreads friends are going to want to play with me any Hey it's Jimmy's page that pretentious dickhead who really thinks he can try reading five books at once what an asshole This isn't my fault David it's yours You and your fuckin age o reason I'm sorry I love you