review Julian author Gore Vidal 103

Julian author Gore Vidal

characters Julian author Gore Vidal

E of thirty two only four years into his brilliantly humane and compassionate reign A marvelously imaginative and insightful novel of classical antiuity Julian captures the religious and political ferment of a desperate age and restores with blazing wit and vigor the legacy of an impassioned ruler A gripping but sad story about a would be philosopher who reluctantly became emperor Contrary to his predecessors Constantine and Constantius II he was tolerant and reasonable A fervent Hellenist he despised Christianity which had been made into the compulsory uniue state religion by Constantine While supporting religious freedom Julian did his best to reinstate the old Roman values and religious traditions many of which were themselves imported Unfortunately his tolerance was interpreted as weakness by some and he was according to the book assassinated by a personal Christian assistant during the Persian campaign He only reigned for 2 years and one can only speculate on how history would have been different if he had had a chance to firmly entrench his many reforms The story is written as a seuence of fragments of Julian's imaginary diary with freuent additions and often humorous comments by his former Hellenistic teachers Throughout the tale one learns that at that time the Christians were perceived as a fanatic sect that did not hesitate to murder its own members if they had a different opinion eg about the trinity Also it is argued that in order to gain market share they stole concepts of any popular rival religion eg the cult of Mithras Strongly recommended if you're interested in Roman history Murderers, Scoundrels and Ragamuffins (The First Ward, reign A marvelously imaginative and insightful novel of classical antiuity Julian captures the The Labors of Heracles religious and political ferment of a desperate age and 7 Myths About Women and Work restores with blazing wit and vigor the legacy of an impassioned Tales Of Bygone New England ruler A gripping but sad story about a would be philosopher who Capacities, Capacity Constraints and Capacity Reserves of Airports, Today and in the Future reluctantly became emperor Contrary to his predecessors Constantine and Constantius II he was tolerant and Simon and the Messy World reasonable A fervent Hellenist he despised Christianity which had been made into the compulsory uniue state Tattered Wings religion by Constantine While supporting The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol 14 religious freedom Julian did his best to Trailer Park Stories reinstate the old Roman values and Parasite religious traditions many of which were themselves imported Unfortunately his tolerance was interpreted as weakness by some and he was according to the book assassinated by a personal Christian assistant during the Persian campaign He only Fifteen Weekends (The Weekends Series, reigned for 2 years and one can only speculate on how history would have been different if he had had a chance to firmly entrench his many Tears from Iron reforms The story is written as a seuence of fragments of Julian's imaginary diary with freuent additions and often humorous comments by his former Hellenistic teachers Throughout the tale one learns that at that time the Christians were perceived as a fanatic sect that did not hesitate to murder its own members if they had a different opinion eg about the trinity Also it is argued that in order to gain market share they stole concepts of any popular Heimat rival Crooked Cucumber religion eg the cult of Mithras Strongly Waiting in the Wings recommended if you're interested in Roman history

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The remarkable bestseller about the fourth century Roman emperor who famously tried to halt the spread of Christianity Julian is widely regarded as one of Gore Vidal’s finest historical novelsJulian the Apostate nephew of Constantine the Great was one of the brightest yet briefest lights in the Julian the Apostate was emperor of Rome from 361 363 CE and the nephew of Constantine Raised in a strict Christian environment although of the Arian tradition he formally announced his conversion to paganism in 361 and became a public enemy of ChristianityThat provides the background for Vidal's excellent historical novel historical in the best sense in that Vidal tried to use as many actual events and recorded conversations as possible Vidal is of course rather flagrant in rejecting Christianity himself so it is easy to see why Julian's gradual rejection of what he viewed as a faith filled with contradictions both in belief and behavior would be appealing to VidalThe book is told from Julian's point of view as a form of autobiography with little side social commentaries of two of his friends The debate between the supporters of Athanasius who finally won out and the Arians is well explained In the fourth century see also When Jesus Became God the debate over the divinity of Jesus was of huge conseuence The Arians basing their case on John 1425 believed in the doctrine of homoiousios Jesus was a similar substance to God the father but created by him The followers of Athanasius adopted that pernicious doctrine later codified in the Nicene Creed of homoousius meaning that God Jesus and the Holy Spirit are one and the sameIt was essential for Julian to pretend to be one of the Galileans as Christians were called then because it was the declared religion of Rome after Constantine As a potential successor to the throne he was subject to all sorts of plots and political machinations and these dangers form much of the tension of the book as Julian tries to remain alive posing as a student of philosophy with no interest in politics Julian's childhood was that of a prince with all that entails including constant supervision little access to people besides his siblings and strict regulation of behavior Julian's cousin the reigning emperor Constantius fearing for his throne systematically murdered those who might be a threat especially his relatives so Julian had to tread very carefully Fortunately Julian was needed to be the titular head of Gaul so he was removed from Athens married to Constantius's sister Helena and sent to barbarian Europe Julian whom the emperor suspected had no military prowess surprised everyone with his skill in battle as well as administratively even though his hands were often tied by Constantius's Florentius who had a great deal of administrative control Constantius's attempts to subdue the Persians was to prove his undoing and when he demanded that virtually all of Julian's troops be sent to him despite Julian's promise to the troops from Gaul that they would not have to serve outside the province those troops rebelled and demanded that Julian be appointed Julian Augustus ie Emperor of the West Helena by this time even though she was sister to Constantius sided with Julian because she knew that her brother had murdered her two children because he feared them as threats to his throne Before a civil war could result Constantius diedJulian's Vidal's comments on power and the corrupting role of imperialism are as pertinent today as they might have been two centuries ago Wherever there is a throne one may observe in rich detail every folly and wickedness of which man is capable enameled with manners and gilded with hypocrisy I have often felt when studying history that not enough is made of those intermediaries who so often do the actual governing As a result factions within the court could form and reform irrelevant to the nominal power On the throne of the world any delusion can become fact The corruption and greed become palpable in Vidal's wordsVidal uses a triple narrative techniue that intersperses Julian's autobiography with comments by two contemporaries a philosopher and a rhetorician whose views do not always coincide with Julian's permitting Vidal to offer disparate views of events Julian is ultimately portrayed as a pagan philosopher leader struggling against the hypocrisy of the new Galilean religion and trying to recapture the glory of the lost Hellenistic pastJulian used his military and imperial rights to revive paganism and subdue the upstart Christian cult but was killed Vidal suggests by one of his own men perhaps at the direction of the bishops during the war against the PersiansVidal has vividly captured the intense political maneuvering and danger of being in line to succeed to the throne This is historical fiction at its nail biting bestminor editing 111911 How to Read Foucaults Discipline and Punish remarkable bestseller about the fourth century Roman emperor who famously tried to halt the spread of Christianity Julian is widely Catch a Falling Star regarded as one of Gore Vidal’s finest historical novelsJulian the Apostate nephew of Constantine the Great was one of the brightest yet briefest lights in the Julian the Apostate was emperor of Rome from 361 363 CE and the nephew of Constantine Raised in a strict Christian environment although of the Arian tradition he formally announced his conversion to paganism in 361 and became a public enemy of ChristianityThat provides the background for Vidal's excellent historical novel historical in the best sense in that Vidal tried to use as many actual events and நெடுங்குருதி [Nedum Kuruthi] recorded conversations as possible Vidal is of course Lets Put on a Show! (Full House: Sisters, rather flagrant in The Rockabye Contract (Joe Gall rejecting Christianity himself so it is easy to see why Julian's gradual Human Rights Tectonics rejection of what he viewed as a faith filled with contradictions both in belief and behavior would be appealing to VidalThe book is told from Julian's point of view as a form of autobiography with little side social commentaries of two of his friends The debate between the supporters of Athanasius who finally won out and the Arians is well explained In the fourth century see also When Jesus Became God the debate over the divinity of Jesus was of huge conseuence The Arians basing their case on John 1425 believed in the doctrine of homoiousios Jesus was a similar substance to God the father but created by him The followers of Athanasius adopted that pernicious doctrine later codified in the Nicene Creed of homoousius meaning that God Jesus and the Holy Spirit are one and the sameIt was essential for Julian to pretend to be one of the Galileans as Christians were called then because it was the declared Blue Angel Confessions religion of Rome after Constantine As a potential successor to the throne he was subject to all sorts of plots and political machinations and these dangers form much of the tension of the book as Julian tries to The Lean Marketplace: a Practical Guide to Building a Successful Online Marketplace Business remain alive posing as a student of philosophy with no interest in politics Julian's childhood was that of a prince with all that entails including constant supervision little access to people besides his siblings and strict زندانی قلعه قهقهه regulation of behavior Julian's cousin the Neue Lebensansichten eines Katers. Juninachmittag reigning emperor Constantius fearing for his throne systematically murdered those who might be a threat especially his Duet for My Lady relatives so Julian had to tread very carefully Fortunately Julian was needed to be the titular head of Gaul so he was Master Dogens Shobogenzo (Book 4) removed from Athens married to Constantius's sister Helena and sent to barbarian Europe Julian whom the emperor suspected had no military prowess surprised everyone with his skill in battle as well as administratively even though his hands were often tied by Constantius's Florentius who had a great deal of administrative control Constantius's attempts to subdue the Persians was to prove his undoing and when he demanded that virtually all of Julian's troops be sent to him despite Julian's promise to the troops from Gaul that they would not have to serve outside the province those troops The Collected Memoirs of Charles Willeford rebelled and demanded that Julian be appointed Julian Augustus ie Emperor of the West Helena by this time even though she was sister to Constantius sided with Julian because she knew that her brother had murdered her two children because he feared them as threats to his throne Before a civil war could When Mr. Darcy Met Lizzy result Constantius diedJulian's Vidal's comments on power and the corrupting Basic English Grammar Book 1 role of imperialism are as pertinent today as they might have been two centuries ago Wherever there is a throne one may observe in After the End rich detail every folly and wickedness of which man is capable enameled with manners and gilded with hypocrisy I have often felt when studying history that not enough is made of those intermediaries who so often do the actual governing As a Naja result factions within the court could form and Safinat Al-Naja reform irrelevant to the nominal power On the throne of the world any delusion can become fact The corruption and greed become palpable in Vidal's wordsVidal uses a triple narrative techniue that intersperses Julian's autobiography with comments by two contemporaries a philosopher and a L'Histoire N 421 Juifs de Pologne Mars 2016 rhetorician whose views do not always coincide with Julian's permitting Vidal to offer disparate views of events Julian is ultimately portrayed as a pagan philosopher leader struggling against the hypocrisy of the new Galilean Yureka, tome 10 religion and trying to Monster Box recapture the glory of the lost Hellenistic pastJulian used his military and imperial The Cast Iron Cookbook rights to Collins World Wall Laminated Map revive paganism and subdue the upstart Christian cult but was killed Vidal suggests by one of his own men perhaps at the direction of the bishops during the war against the PersiansVidal has vividly captured the intense political maneuvering and danger of being in line to succeed to the throne This is historical fiction at its nail biting bestminor editing 111911

Gore Vidal É 3 free read

History of the Roman Empire A military genius on the level of Julius Caesar and Alexander the Great a graceful and persuasive essayist and a philosopher devoted to worshiping the gods of Hellenism he became embroiled in a fierce intellectual war with Christianity that provoked his murder at the ag “No one can ever love us uite so much as we love ourselves” Attributed to Julian by Gore Vidal Julian is a well crafted historical fictional solilouy written by Gore Vidal in 1964 It is some five hundred pages in length but moves along uickly Covering the thirty two year life of the last of the great Roman emperors the story includes palace intrigue a great deal of history fascinating war campaigns and then ultimate betrayal Vidal’s tone is somewhat subdued in the book perhaps because there are enough historically dramatic events such that Vidal didn’t feel the need to oversell There is also another narrator in the presence of Priscus an actual historian of the 5th century who does some minor narrating to correct Julian’s errant facts and begin the story when Julian is young and wrap it up after he dies Julian’s reign as Roman Emperor AD 361 AD 363 was significant in many ways but was largely so because he came so near the end of the one thousand year reign of the Roman Empire Julian was known to posterity as Julian the Apostate a boy raised as a Christian who renounced Christianity early in life He was considered the last pagan Emperor even though that sobriuet is not entirely accurate Julian was also a noted philosopher and eventual military leader who wrote several books in his young life ‘Against the Galileans’ perhaps his most famous writing is a long essay dissecting the origins and inconsistencies of Christianity even to a large degree defending the logical nature of Judaism although he was not a believer of Judaism himself In this essay he asserted that Jesus Christ as the son of God is as much a myth as the Greek gods The writings of Julian and the nearly contemporary writings of Theodoret in the 5th century AD are where Vidal drew much of his inspiration This may be a spoiler for some The novel itself starts out when Julian and his older brother Gallus are young boys Their mother had died giving birth to Julian We learn that Gallus is a bully through a number of episodes but amidst the resentment there is still a brotherly bond there A few years later while acting as the emperor’s consul their father is assassinated by the Roman Emperor Constantius II Constantius II also happens to be Gallus and Julian’s older cousin From this moment in the novel the boys are now orphans They are looked after by their cousin and given the best education the boys are split up and their private instruction and living arrangements shuffle between palaces in Byzantium and Greece While being educated the boys are also routinely spied upon by the eunuchs of which Constantius is fond of relying on Vidal masterfully creates the aura of palace intrigue through several eunuchs The Roman Empire is so large and there often many Caesars needed to rule fight rebellions pacify the populace and bring in tax revenue for the Emperor Thus this need for loyal Caesars is why Constantius wants to educate and have the boys prosper despite having killed their father To ensure that they remain loyal he needs his spies So Julian learns to rely almost solely on himself and keeps a low profile and does not espouse much in his writings or criticize the Emperor within earshot This would only give his cousin the justification to assassinate him Julian studies religion and philosophy and by his teenage years has already given up on the idea of Christianity Gallus is outspoken in his opinions but is focused on becoming a military leader Constantius eventually elevates Gallus to Caesar in the East when he is twenty five He is needed in the East to uash rebellions in Serbia and elsewhere in Byzantium and persecute rebellious Jews Ruling is dangerously difficult for Gallus and he survives at least one assassination attempt from within the military Deeming him politically expedient Gallus is lured by Constantius with false offers of co emperor then he is arrested and executedJulian does not seem surprised at the news of his brother’s execution almost expecting it The following year AD 355 Julian is also given the Caesar title as the military and ruler of Gaul There are many fascinating chapters and a lot of detail in the book about his life in Paris as Caesar and the military campaigns against the Germanic tribes including the victorious Battle of Strasbourg in AD 357 This military rule and battles with the Germanic tribes continued for three years and Julian became very popular with the troops and the people who started to call him Augustus He then just decided to take on the title His cousin Constantius was still ruling in the east and being the rightful Augustus decided enough was enough He launched a campaign to defeat his usurping cousin Julian As Julian's army was eventually hemmed in by the larger armies of the Emperor Constantius Julian received some good fortune when Constantius fell ill and died There was little outward resistance to Julian then claiming the title as sole Emperor At this point in the story wanting to consolidate power in the east Julian in AD 361 overconfidently launched a multi year campaign against the Persians Julian’s army was successful militarily in the early battles leading his army of tens of thousands into Mesopotamia but eventually the extremely hot weather arrives and the Persians began burning crops to starve out Julian’s army and it worked As a result there are threats of mutiny amongst Julian’s troops While looking for astrological signs in the stars for months Julian finally heeds the warnings and turns his army back from deep within Persia So in AD 363 he leads his army back along the long and winding Euphrates He loses men to disease and starvation and skirmishes with Persian militias from nearby strongholds In one of the battles he is struck in the abdomen and liver with a spear from which he succumbs a few days later We learn that the spear is of Roman origin so it is clear that he was killed by one of his own men Late in the book we learn what happened from one of the narrators who visited Julian’s aide de camp in that last campaign The aide a former slave is now retired and living a life of luxury along the coast of the Mediterranean He admits to spearing Julian during the battle but never divulges how he came by his wealth leaving the reader to wonder who ordered the assassination Since enough time had passed since Julian’s death and because Julian was an apostate there is little appetite to prosecute his assassin anyway and that’s where the story ends End of Spoiler So this novel was exceptionally well written I can’t say that the language and voices used were as convincing as a period piece like say ‘I Claudius’ but ‘Julian’ was generally educational and interesting than Claudius’ story to be sure Vidal has written many novels and is indisputably one of the 20th century’s greatest essayists and I observed that his writing style tends to be informative and analytical than overly dramatic at least in this novel There is very little discussion of women in this book apart from unflattering descriptions of Helena the wife who Julian was arranged to marry by his cousin After I read the essay ‘Against the Galileans’ by Julian I can also say that Vidal probably attributed too much emphasis to Julian’s belief in classical mythology in making military decisions I got the clear sense from Julian’s own words that he was much of a traditionalist and did not appreciate what he viewed as the new mythologies such as Christianity in particular which were so rapidly transforming the culture in the Roman empire Something to the effect of we already have a Greek and Roman mythological culture why do we need a new one This view was in spite of the fact that his uncle Constantine the Great may have done than anyone in history to spread Christianity 45 stars There is some flatness in the writing of this story and so it might be of less interest to those who don’t especially like historical books Human Rights Tectonics reign as Roman Emperor AD 361 AD 363 was significant in many ways but was largely so because he came so near the end of the one thousand year Blue Angel Confessions reign of the Roman Empire Julian was known to posterity as Julian the Apostate a boy The Lean Marketplace: a Practical Guide to Building a Successful Online Marketplace Business raised as a Christian who زندانی قلعه قهقهه renounced Christianity early in life He was considered the last pagan Emperor even though that sobriuet is not entirely accurate Julian was also a noted philosopher and eventual military leader who wrote several books in his young life ‘Against the Galileans’ perhaps his most famous writing is a long essay dissecting the origins and inconsistencies of Christianity even to a large degree defending the logical nature of Judaism although he was not a believer of Judaism himself In this essay he asserted that Jesus Christ as the son of God is as much a myth as the Greek gods The writings of Julian and the nearly contemporary writings of Theodoret in the 5th century AD are where Vidal drew much of his inspiration This may be a spoiler for some The novel itself starts out when Julian and his older brother Gallus are young boys Their mother had died giving birth to Julian We learn that Gallus is a bully through a number of episodes but amidst the Neue Lebensansichten eines Katers. Juninachmittag resentment there is still a brotherly bond there A few years later while acting as the emperor’s consul their father is assassinated by the Roman Emperor Constantius II Constantius II also happens to be Gallus and Julian’s older cousin From this moment in the novel the boys are now orphans They are looked after by their cousin and given the best education the boys are split up and their private instruction and living arrangements shuffle between palaces in Byzantium and Greece While being educated the boys are also Duet for My Lady routinely spied upon by the eunuchs of which Constantius is fond of Master Dogens Shobogenzo (Book 4) relying on Vidal masterfully creates the aura of palace intrigue through several eunuchs The Roman Empire is so large and there often many Caesars needed to The Collected Memoirs of Charles Willeford rule fight When Mr. Darcy Met Lizzy rebellions pacify the populace and bring in tax Basic English Grammar Book 1 revenue for the Emperor Thus this need for loyal Caesars is why Constantius wants to educate and have the boys prosper despite having killed their father To ensure that they After the End remain loyal he needs his spies So Julian learns to Naja rely almost solely on himself and keeps a low profile and does not espouse much in his writings or criticize the Emperor within earshot This would only give his cousin the justification to assassinate him Julian studies Safinat Al-Naja religion and philosophy and by his teenage years has already given up on the idea of Christianity Gallus is outspoken in his opinions but is focused on becoming a military leader Constantius eventually elevates Gallus to Caesar in the East when he is twenty five He is needed in the East to uash L'Histoire N 421 Juifs de Pologne Mars 2016 rebellions in Serbia and elsewhere in Byzantium and persecute Yureka, tome 10 rebellious Jews Ruling is dangerously difficult for Gallus and he survives at least one assassination attempt from within the military Deeming him politically expedient Gallus is lured by Constantius with false offers of co emperor then he is arrested and executedJulian does not seem surprised at the news of his brother’s execution almost expecting it The following year AD 355 Julian is also given the Caesar title as the military and Monster Box ruler of Gaul There are many fascinating chapters and a lot of detail in the book about his life in Paris as Caesar and the military campaigns against the Germanic tribes including the victorious Battle of Strasbourg in AD 357 This military The Cast Iron Cookbook rule and battles with the Germanic tribes continued for three years and Julian became very popular with the troops and the people who started to call him Augustus He then just decided to take on the title His cousin Constantius was still Collins World Wall Laminated Map ruling in the east and being the One rightful Augustus decided enough was enough He launched a campaign to defeat his usurping cousin Julian As Julian's army was eventually hemmed in by the larger armies of the Emperor Constantius Julian Dark Clouds of the Morning received some good fortune when Constantius fell ill and died There was little outward The Color of Bones resistance to Julian then claiming the title as sole Emperor At this point in the story wanting to consolidate power in the east Julian in AD 361 overconfidently launched a multi year campaign against the Persians Julian’s army was successful militarily in the early battles leading his army of tens of thousands into Mesopotamia but eventually the extremely hot weather arrives and the Persians began burning crops to starve out Julian’s army and it worked As a Enduring (The Dominion Saga: result there are threats of mutiny amongst Julian’s troops While looking for astrological signs in the stars for months Julian finally heeds the warnings and turns his army back from deep within Persia So in AD 363 he leads his army back along the long and winding Euphrates He loses men to disease and starvation and skirmishes with Persian militias from nearby strongholds In one of the battles he is struck in the abdomen and liver with a spear from which he succumbs a few days later We learn that the spear is of Roman origin so it is clear that he was killed by one of his own men Late in the book we learn what happened from one of the narrators who visited Julian’s aide de camp in that last campaign The aide a former slave is now Face Of The Waters retired and living a life of luxury along the coast of the Mediterranean He admits to spearing Julian during the battle but never divulges how he came by his wealth leaving the العجوز التي حطمت القواعد reader to wonder who ordered the assassination Since enough time had passed since Julian’s death and because Julian was an apostate there is little appetite to prosecute his assassin anyway and that’s where the story ends End of Spoiler So this novel was exceptionally well written I can’t say that the language and voices used were as convincing as a period piece like say ‘I Claudius’ but ‘Julian’ was generally educational and interesting than Claudius’ story to be sure Vidal has written many novels and is indisputably one of the 20th century’s greatest essayists and I observed that his writing style tends to be informative and analytical than overly dramatic at least in this novel There is very little discussion of women in this book apart from unflattering descriptions of Helena the wife who Julian was arranged to marry by his cousin After I Ideology and Power in the Viking and Middle Ages read the essay ‘Against the Galileans’ by Julian I can also say that Vidal probably attributed too much emphasis to Julian’s belief in classical mythology in making military decisions I got the clear sense from Julian’s own words that he was much of a traditionalist and did not appreciate what he viewed as the new mythologies such as Christianity in particular which were so Thirty-Two Going On Spinster (Spinster Series Book 1) rapidly transforming the culture in the Roman empire Something to the effect of we already have a Greek and Roman mythological culture why do we need a new one This view was in spite of the fact that his uncle Constantine the Great may have done than anyone in history to spread Christianity 45 stars There is some flatness in the writing of this story and so it might be of less interest to those who don’t especially like historical books