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The Open Society and Its Enemies: 1.The Spell of Plato

Free download The Open Society and Its Enemies: 1.The Spell of Plato

يثير هذا الكتاب الصعوبات التي تواجه حضارتنا، تلك الحضارة التي يمكن بما هي نزوع إلى تحقيق ما هو إنساني ومعقول، وتحقيق المساواة والحرية، ويحاول أن يبين أن هذه الحضارة لم ?. Have you wondered what Plato was all about or had trouble reading through his lengthy works Get this wonderful book where an outstanding author does the hard work for you then lays out the gist of Plato's thoughts in clear easily and uickly readable proseBehind our societies lie influential ideas philosophies about the best way to organize humanity In a few cases the general public might be able to associate a person with an idea Marx and communism Jefferson and American democracy but for the most part the philosophers whose thoughts deeply impact the way things are remain unknown Too many think of philosophy as irrelevant to daily life; the verbose and complex musings of pointy headed intellectuals that have no impact Nothing could be further from the truth Neo conservatism and neo liberalism are philosophies that have driven America into a ditch yet few citizens would be able to say anything about what these two philosophies are about who the proponents have been or how the philosophies came to be Ideas drive civilization The only reason this is not clear to us is that we are concerned with the details of getting on with our lives We're all deeply embedded in ideas made real whose lifetimes far exceed that of a human being It's easy to have no perspective as we live out life under one system and know no other Things appear the way they are with no alternative This is a problem If you don't know how something works how can you begin to fix it If you can't fix it it deteriorates until tyranny and then revolution follow bringing a new idea in on a tide of blood Democracy in particular is a work always in progress A democracy where the citizenry drops out loses interest becomes cynical hands over power to the powerful who are than willing to take it But I am speaking of current events To the bookThe ancient Greeks are acknowledged to be the founders of Western thought the thought that comes down through history to the present day in America and Europe and they put democracy into practice One of these ancient Greeks Socrates d 399 BCE is a name most of us have heard as well as that of his pupil Plato and of Plato's pupil Aristotle who tutored Alexander the Great Plato the founder of the first academy and a prolific writer left his thoughts well documented Our knowledge of Socrates comes mostly from Plato who often in his writings put words into the mouth of Socrates in addition to detailing the Socratic method Plato has never been far from the thoughts of the powerful in the Western world ever sinceKarl Popper writes his book this one is part one of two to warn us of the danger in Plato's thoughts so widely venerated over the ages as they are a prescription for totalitarianism the enemy of the open society The open society is one where individuals are free to determine their lives and to make their own decisions The closed society is one where individual life is important only in how it contributes to the strength of the state The closed society dictates to the individual a life with an assigned status and functionPlato wrote at a time when Athens a democracy had recently been defeated by totalitarian Sparta in the 30 year Peloponnesian Wars At this time of anxiety and insecurity Plato a sympathizer and admirer of Sparta lays out a prescription for the ideal state in his Republic a work founded on the desire for stability and a fear of change Plato a pessimist believed that there were perfect Ideas and Forms that once put into use could not help but degenerate from the originals He seeks to hold back this degeneration as much as possible by the creation of a state that rejects change demands adherence to order above all things and forbids novelty which can only hasten decay Popper drawing evidence from all of Plato's work makes the case that the good of the state is what Plato considers to be justice Humanity is to be divided up into the rulers the guardians and the masses including slaves that are to stay in their places through the generations all serving to maintain the stability of the state with no chance of moving from one class to another Eugenics is to be used to keep the human stock from deteriorating Lies to the public by the rulers are perfectly ok in the service of maintaining a national myth to rally aroundWith thorough analysis and freuent uotes Popper indicts Plato in his own words stripping away the fog of veneration to reveal the harsh ideal that laid the foundation for the kind of thinking exemplified by that of Hitler's National Socialism At the heart of Popper's work is his rejection of what he calls historicism the idea that there is a historical tide in human events that dictates the future that we are all floating on a sea of inevitable societal change that will take one form and then another heedless of the individuals that make up the mass that there is a fate a destiny to societies Popper sees this as mythological nonsense but immensely influential and uickly embraced by those thinkers who long for a structure underlying human existence a meaning a reason that makes sense of history and that allows prophecyI have long known of Popper as he is widely admired and uoted but never could get hold of his work Public libraries don't have his books and only a nearby university library did Thanks to I found used copies of The Open Society and Its Enemies for a pittance What I have been missing Volume II moves on from Plato to deal with Hegel and Marx to do the same with them taking apart their grand designs to show the danger within He mentions in volume II that to avoid a huge book on historicism through the ages he skipped over the long period between Plato and Hegel I wish he hadn't because I would eagerly read it

Free read ¶ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ñ Karl Popper

?لى أن «السلطة مفسدة، ومن ثم فالسلطة المطلقة مفسدة مطلقة في الكتاب يراجع بوبر الجذور العميقة للثقافة الغربية، في هذا الجزء يناقش وينتقد أفلاطون بوصفه «الفيلسوف المقدس». Popper severely criticizes Plato for his totalitarianism The Republic the Laws and the Statesman are designed to put a divine system in this world Except for the Philosopher King whose job it was to provide vision order stability Plato shuts down reason for others Everyone has a place For most this is to be on the receiving end of orders and direction It is a closed system as opposed to the vision of what Popper calls the Great Generation – Pericles and especially Socrates whose task it was to tackle ignorance to uestion everything and to employ reason in the search for truth For Popper Socrates was a voice for democratic values and independent thinking that stood in stark contrast with the top down approach advanced by his pupil Plato Socrates was the icon of the Open Society and Plato was its greatest opponent Popper sees Plato as a political philosopher but Plato is first and foremost a religious figure who is preoccupied with the eternal world of Forms It’s not that Popper is wrong in his characterization of Plato’s closed system But Plato’s motivation went much deeper than what Popper emphasizes The reason for Plato’s totalitarian system was to impose a divine vision and to deliver the world from imperfection and flux In my view Popper is wrong in his argument that Socrates was the philosopher of the Open Society The dialogues reveal Socrates as an agenda driven figure He was the obnoxious guy you don’t want to be in the same room with His famed “dialogic” mode of conversation was to point out the flaws in what others put forward and to show eristically that his Socrates’ view was by default the correct way to think Socrates talked about worldly things but always from a background that suggested he was all about reason and truth And what might reason and truth be It was Plato’s Good to be the divine world as accessed by Reason It was the Good and Reason of the Neoplatonists and later Plato’s philosophical theology as revived by Italian Renaissance figures Popper argues that Plato betrayed Socrates’ humanitarian impulses How Popper comes to this conclusion is a mystery other than taking at face value the common view still persisting that Socrates was a against ignorance b for truth c for reason and d for dialogue And e he was willing to die for his beliefs Why there is a Plato Socrates distinction is not clear Jowett advises that one needs to read each dialogue within the context of others It is a metaphysical whole Socrates dominates many of the dialogues and presumably reflects what Plato was after – ignorance was about a this world reality Truth was about a divine eternal world and reason via a one way dialogue was the vehicle to get there It was anything but a this world truth Socrates was Jesus before his time Socrates didn’t die on the cross but he did take the poison And then he did his Platonic ascension to the non world of the DivinePopper is heavy on textual analysis The book itself is full of this but the footnotes are a book in themselves An argument also can be made that Plato’s thought was informed by notions from the Vedic world via ancient trading routes between Greece and what is now India Pakistan Was Plato the first evangelical whose lineage can be traced to the Christians of today who want God’s kingdom on EarthIronically the opponents to Socrates the Sophists did Popper’s work of social engineering – of using reason to solve everyday problems to make the world a better place Yes as now there are the salesmen But Protagoras seemed to be about being reasonable than not and he was void of Socrates’ ideological approach The Italian Renaissance figures who revived Plato for Western Philosophy are covered in my review of Will Durant’s Volume V History of Civilization Managerial Decision Making uestion everything and to employ reason in the search for truth For Popper Socrates was a voice for democratic values and independent thinking that stood in stark contrast with the top down approach advanced by his pupil Plato Socrates was the icon of the Open Society and Plato was its greatest opponent Popper sees Plato as a political philosopher but Plato is first and foremost a religious figure who is preoccupied with the eternal world of Forms It’s not that Popper is wrong in his characterization of Plato’s closed system But Plato’s motivation went much deeper than what Popper emphasizes The reason for Plato’s totalitarian system was to impose a divine vision and to deliver the world from imperfection and flux In my view Popper is wrong in his argument that Socrates was the philosopher of the Open Society The dialogues reveal Socrates as an agenda driven figure He was the obnoxious guy you don’t want to be in the same room with His famed “dialogic” mode of conversation was to point out the flaws in what others put forward and to show eristically that his Socrates’ view was by default the correct way to think Socrates talked about worldly things but always from a background that suggested he was all about reason and truth And what might reason and truth be It was Plato’s Good to be the divine world as accessed by Reason It was the Good and Reason of the Neoplatonists and later Plato’s philosophical theology as revived by Italian Renaissance figures Popper argues that Plato betrayed Socrates’ humanitarian impulses How Popper comes to this conclusion is a mystery other than taking at face value the common view still persisting that Socrates was a against ignorance b for truth c for reason and d for dialogue And e he was willing to die for his beliefs Why there is a Plato Socrates distinction is not clear Jowett advises that one needs to read each dialogue within the context of others It is a metaphysical whole Socrates dominates many of the dialogues and presumably reflects what Plato was after – ignorance was about a this world reality Truth was about a divine eternal world and reason via a one way dialogue was the vehicle to get there It was anything but a this world truth Socrates was Jesus before his time Socrates didn’t die on the cross but he did take the poison And then he did his Platonic ascension to the non world of the DivinePopper is heavy on textual analysis The book itself is full of this but the footnotes are a book in themselves An argument also can be made that Plato’s thought was informed by notions from the Vedic world via ancient trading routes between Greece and what is now India Pakistan Was Plato the first evangelical whose lineage can be traced to the Christians of today who want God’s kingdom on EarthIronically the opponents to Socrates the Sophists did Popper’s work of social engineering – of His Punishment using reason to solve everyday problems to make the world a better place Yes as now there are the salesmen But Protagoras seemed to be about being reasonable than not and he was void of Socrates’ ideological approach The Italian Renaissance figures who revived Plato for Western Philosophy are covered in my review of Will Durant’s Volume V History of Civilization

Karl Popper ñ 6 Characters

?فق بعد من صدمة ميلادها، صدمة التحول من «المجتمع القبلي» أو «المغلق»، بما وقع له تحت سيطرة القوى السحرية، إلى «المجتمع المفتوح» الذي يطلق قوى الإنسان النقدية يخلص بوبر ?. A strong and convincing analysis of Plato's conception of the perfect state as a foundations for totalitarianism Plato thought that there exists a transcendental world full of perfect Forms or Ideas of every sensible thing in our own world So there exist conceptions of the Perfect State and the Perfect Man Plato uses these to build his own ideal state This a state that arrests change and fights the constant degeneration inherent in our cosmos In doing so Plato makes every individual subservient to the state and pleads for eugenics infanticide and autocratic leadership of course by philosopher warriors Only philosophers over the age of 50 and with knowledge of this perfect transcendental world can lead this society They are the ones who decide who breeds with whom who is worhty of becoming one of the future leaders and who lie and deceive to keep the masses in check Unity in the ruling elite is the main purpose of this system this keeps the perfect state perfect; all change is degenerationI think Popper's analysis of Plato's ideas is mostly valid especially the connection between contemporary events the Pelopponesian war the rise of democracy the betrayal of Athenian oligarchs etc and Plato's longing for a tribal society à la Sparta Popper refutes almost all counterarguments convincingly and build his own case with care On a personal note I have always disliked Plato's philosophy especially the notion of this perfect world with all the perfect forms smacks too much of monotheism; Nietzsche's 'hintlerweltlerei' I am therefore glad to have read this rational critiue of Plato's ideas and their implications

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